Subak is a system of regulation or a traditional water distribution system


 Subak is a system of regulation or a traditional water distribution system that exists in Agriculture in Bali, the word Subak was first heard and seen in the Pandak Bandung inscription which has the number 1072 AD, the word Subak implies a traditional organization, a unique socio-religious institution that has its arrangement Subak for the Balinese Hindu community is not just irrigation and water regulation but is a relationship with Hindu philosophy, namely Tri Hita Karana which means three Hita namely, Happiness, Welfare, and Karana or causes and The three causes of Happiness, Prosperity, are:

-Parahyangan: Harmonious relationship between man and God

-Pawongan Harmonious Relationships between Humans and Each Other

-Palemahan: Harmonious relationship between humans and their natural environment

Subak Organizational Structure

Members of Subak or krama Subak are farmers who have cultivated fields and get a share of water in their fields, in the Subak organization there is a group called Seka and is divided into 3, among others

-Active Krama: active members such as krama Pekaseh Seka yeh or Seka Subak

-Passive manners are manners that are not active and replace the activity of krama with money or are caused by several things.

-Krama Escape is a krama who is released from his obligations or is not active due to duties such as the customary village head of the village head.

As an autonomous organization that manages its organization, Subak applies rules called Awig-Awig, sima, Perarem, in Awig, the main provisions are contained in Awig, which contains Parayangan, Pawongan and,  Palemahan , and Awig-Awig also contains rights and obligations of Subak manners and about sanctions for violations of these rights and obligations.Management (Prajuru) Subak consists of:

Pekaseh/Kelian is the head of the subak.

 The Pangliman/Petajuh is in charge of being the deputy head of the Subak.

The clerk/scribe is the secretary.

Petengen/Current mercury is to have a duty as treasurer.

I/the interpreter/accompanist/arrival/Casinoman have duties in matters of notification or announcement.

Stakeholders are on special duty in ritual/religious matters.

The group (Sekaa) within the Subak is divided into:

Sekaa Numbeg, a group that regulates land management.

Sekaa Jelinjingan, a group in charge of regulating water treatment.

Sekaa Sambang, which is a group that has the task of controlling water from theft, catching or deterring plant-destroying animals such as birds and rats.

Sekaa Memulih/Nandur, namely the group in charge of planting rice seedlings.

Sekaa Mejukut is a group in charge of weeding rice.

Sekaa Manyi is a group in charge of harvesting/cutting/planning rice.

Sekaa Bleseng is a group that has the task of transporting bundles of rice that have been planed from the fields to the barn.

As an autonomous organization in managing its organization, Subak can establish regulations known as Awig Awig, sima, Perarem The Awig Awig contains the main things and provisions, the main content in Awig Awig is to regulate matters of Parahyangan, Pawongan and weakening, while the provisions and more detailed matters are contained in the Pararem as the implementation of Awig Awig Subak. Awig Awig Subak contains the rights and obligations of Subak residents and contains sanctions for violations of these rights and obligations.

Subak Irrigation Network

Experts also mention that Subak is also a technology system that has become a culture in Bali. Subak is a technological method from the indigenous culture of Balinese farmers. The main facilities of Subak irrigation (palemahan) for each Subak member farmer are Pengalapan (water dam), Jellynjing (trench), and a Cakangan (a place/tool ​​to enter water into arable fields).

If in a rice field location there are two or more shells that are close to each other, the heights of the shells are the same (the ease and smoothness of the water flowing into each farmer's field is the same), but the difference in the width of the hole holes can still be tolerated according to differences area of ​​rice fields cultivated by farmers. The manufacture, maintenance, and management of the use of Subak irrigation facilities are carried out jointly by Subak members (krama).

The irrigation system network in Subak if sorted from water sources consists of:

Empelan/Empangan as a source of water flow/dam.

Interest/Open is as income (taking).

Aungan is a closed aqueduct or tunnel.

Telabah aya (gede), is the main channel.

Tembuku aya (Gede), is a building for the distribution of the main water.

Telabah tempek (munduk / branch / kanca), is a branch water channel.

style="font-family: arial; font-size: medium;">Telabah Cherry, as a branch water channel.

Telabah Panyacah (rope Kunda), in some places known as Penasan (for 10 parts), Panca (for 5 people), and Pamijian (for alone/1 person).

Through this Subak system, the farmers get their share of water following the provisions set by the deliberation of the Subak residents/krama Subak and still based on the Tri Hita Karana philosophy. Therefore, activities within the Subak organization/association do not only cover issues of agriculture or farming, but also include issues of ritual and worship to ask for fortune and fertility.

Rice fields, rice plants, and water have an important role in the Subak irrigation system and are even related to the religious aspect. All three are related to the power of Dewi Sri (Goddess of fertility and prosperity). Therefore, Subak does not only regulate technical issues of water regulation and distribution, but also social and religious (religious) aspects.

Each Subak usually has a temple called Pura Ulun Carik or Pura Bedugul, which was specially built by farmers to worship Dewi Sri. This irrigation system is regulated by a traditional leader and also a farmer called Kelian (Klian) who has the task of supervising and managing the Subak.

To become a Kelian Subak is social, does not get a salary or reward. The distribution or distribution of water is adjusted to the membership of farmers in Subak, there are active and passive members, both of whom receive different water distributions. This is the basis of justice where the distribution of water is adjusted to the contribution.

Subak has been studied and researched by Clifford Geertz, while J. Stephen Lansing has drawn public attention to the importance of traditional irrigation methods. He studied and researched many sacred places (temples) in Bali, especially holy places dedicated to agriculture.

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